# Strain Components

 EPSX Normal strain in the X-direction of the selected reference geometry EPSY Normal strain in the Y-direction of the selected reference geometry EPSZ Normal strain in the Z-direction of the selected reference geometry GMXY Shear strain in the Y direction in the YZ-plane of the selected reference geometry GMXZ Shear strain in the Z direction in the YZ-plane of the selected reference geometry GMYZ Shear strain in the Z direction in the XZ-plane of the selected reference geometry ESTRN Equivalent strain SEDENS Strain energy density (a) ENERGY Total strain energy (b) E1 Normal strain in the first principal direction E2 Normal strain in the second principal direction E3 Normal strain in the third principal direction Strain Type Used for nonlinear studies only Total Total strain due to various effects Plastic Nonrecoverable strain Elastic Recoverable strain Thermal Strain due to thermal effects Creep Strain due to creep effects
 Equivalent strain (ESTRN) ESTRN=2 [(ε1+ε2)/3](1/2) Where: ε1 = 0.5 [(EPSX - ε*)2 + (EPSY - ε*)2 + (EPSZ - ε*)2] ε2 = [(GMXY)2 + (GMXZ)2 + (GMYZ)2] / 4 ε* = (EPSX + EPSY + EPSZ) / 3
 Total strain energy (ENERGY) Total Strain Energy = ∑ [( SX * EPSX + SY * EPSY + SZ * EPSZ + TXY * GMXY + TXZ * GMXZ + TYZ * GMYZ) * Vol(i) * W(i) /2] for i=1 , N int N int are the integration points (or Gaussian points), W(i) is the weighted constant at integration point i, and ( SX = X normal stress, SY = Y normal stress, SZ = Z normal stress, TXY = Shear in Y direction on YZ plane, TXZ = Shear in Z direction on YZ plane, TYZ = Shear in Z direction on XZ plane )
 Strain energy density (SEDENS) SEDENS = Total Strain Energy / Volume , Volume = ∑ [ Vol(i) * W(i)] , i =1, N int.